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Complete Video Compression Guide

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  #11  
Old 12-08-2004
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Post MPEG-1 Video Syntax


MPEG-1 Video Syntax


Some of the many parameters used by MPEG to specify and control the compression of a video sequence are described in this section in detail. Readers who are interested only in the general description of MPEG may skip this section. The concepts of video sequence, picture, slice, macroblock, and block have already been discussed. Figure 6.24 shows the format of the compressed MPEG stream and how it is organized in six layers. Optional parts are enclosed in dashed boxes. Notice that only the video sequence of the compressed stream is shown; the system parts are omitted.

The video sequence starts with a sequence header, followed by a group of pictures (GOP) and optionally by more GOPs. There may be other sequence headers followed by more GOPs, and the sequence ends with a sequence-end-code. The extra sequence headers may be included to help in random access playback or video editing, but most of the parameters in the extra sequence headers must remain unchanged from the first header. A group of pictures (GOP) starts with a GOP header, followed by one or more pictures. Each picture in a GOP starts with a picture header, followed by one or more slices. Each slice, in turn, consists of a slice header followed by one or more macroblocks of encoded, quantized DCT coefficients. A macroblock is a set of six 88 blocks, four blocks of luminance samples and two blocks of chrominance samples. Some blocks may be completely zero and may not be encoded. Each block is coded in intra or nonintra. An intra block starts with a difference between its DC coefficient and the previous DC coefficient (of the same type), followed by run-level codes for the nonzero AC coefficients and zero runs. The EOB code terminates the block. In a nonintra block, both DC and AC coefficients are run-level coded.

It should be mentioned that in addition to the I, P, and B picture types, there exists in MPEG a fourth type, a D picture (for DC coded). Such pictures contain only DC coefficient information; no run-level codes or EOB is included. However, D pictures are not allowed to be mixed with the other types of pictures, so they are rare and will not be discussed further. The headers of a sequence, GOP, picture, and slice all start with a byte-aligned 32-bit start code. In addition to these video start codes there are other start codes for the system layer, user data, and error tagging. A start code starts with 23 zero bits, followed by a single bit of 1, followed by a unique byte. Table 6.25 lists all the video start codes. The “sequence.error” code is for cases where the encoder discovers unrecoverable errors in a video sequence and cannot encode it as a result. The run-level codes have variable lengths, so some zero bits normally have to be appended to the video stream before a start code, to make sure the code starts on a byte boundary.

Video Sequence Layer: This starts with start code 000001B3, followed by nine fixed-length data elements. The parameters horizontal_size and vertical_size are 12-bit parameters that define the width and height of the picture. Neither is allowed to be zero, and vertical_size must be even. Parameter pel_aspect_ratio is a 4-bit parameter that specifies the aspect ratio of a pel. Its 16 values are listed in Table 6.26. Parameter picture_rate is a 4-bit parameter that specifies one of 16 picture refresh rates

GOP Layer: This layer starts with nine mandatory elements, optionally followed by extensions and user data, and by the (compressed) pictures themselves. The 32-bit group start code 000001B8 is followed by the 25-bit time_code, which consists of the following six data elements: drop_frame_flag (1 bit) is zero unless the picture rate is 29.97 Hz; time_code_hours (5 bits, in the range [0, 23]), data elements time_code_minutes (6 bits, in the range [0, 59]), and time_code_seconds (6 bits, in the same range) indicate the hours, minutes, and seconds in the time interval from the start of the sequence to the display of the first picture in the GOP. The 6-bit time_code_pictures parameter indicates the number of pictures in a second. There is a marker_bit between time_code_minutes and time_code_seconds. Following the time_code there are two 1-bit parameters. The flag closed_gop is set if the GOP is closed (i.e., its pictures can be decoded without reference to pictures from outside the group). The broken_link flag is set to 1 if editing has disrupted the original sequence of groups of pictures.

Picture Layer: Parameters in this layer specify the type of the picture (I, P, B, or D) and the motion vectors for the picture. The layer starts with the 32-bit picture_start_code, whose hexadecimal value is 00000100. It is followed by a 10- bit temporal_reference parameter, which is the picture number (modulo 1024) in the sequence. The next parameter is the 3-bit picture_coding_type (Table 6.29), and this is followed by the 16-bit vbv_delay that tells the decoder how many bits must be in the compressed data buffer before the picture can be decoded. This parameter helps prevent buffer overflow and underflow. If the picture type is P or B, then this is followed by the forward motion vectors scale information, a 3-bit parameter called forward_f_code (see Table 6.34). For B pictures, there follows the backward motion vectors scale information, a 3-bit parameter called backward_f_code.

Slice Layer: There can be many slices in a picture, so the start code of a slice ends with a value in the range [1, 175]. This value defines the macroblock row where the slice starts (a picture can therefore have up to 175 rows of macroblocks). The horizontal position where the slice starts in that macroblock row is determined by other parameters. The quantizer_scale (5 bits) initializes the quantizer scale factor, discussed earlier in connection with the rounding of the quantized DCT coefficients. The extra_bit_slice flag following it is always 0 (the value of 1 is reserved for future ISO standards). Following this, the encoded macroblocks are written.

Macroblock Layer: This layer identifies the position of the macroblock relative to the position of the current macroblock. It codes the motion vectors for the macroblock, and identifies the zero and nonzero blocks in the macroblock. Each macroblock has an address, or index, in the picture. Index values start at 0 in the upper-left corner of the picture and continue in raster order. When the encoder starts encoding a new picture, it sets the macroblock address to -1. The macroblock_ address_increment parameter contains the amount needed to increment the macroblock address in order to reach the macroblock being coded. This parameter is normally 1. If macroblock_address_increment is greater than 33, it is encoded as a sequence of macroblock_escape codes, each incrementing the macroblock address by 33.

Block Layer: This layer is the lowest in the video sequence. It contains the encoded 88 blocks of quantized DCT coefficients. The coding depends on whether the block contains luminance or chrominance samples and on whether the macroblock is intra or nonintra. In nonintra coding, blocks that are completely zero are skipped; they don’t have to be encoded. The macroblock_intra flag gets its value from macroblock_type. If it is set, the DC coefficient of the block is coded separately from the AC coefficients.
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Old 12-08-2004
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Post Motion Compensation

Motion Compensation


An important element of MPEG is motion compensation, which is used in inter coding only. In this mode, the pels of the current picture are predicted by those of a previous reference picture (and, possibly, by those of a future reference picture). Pels are subtracted, and the differences (which should be small numbers) are DCT transformed, quantized, and encoded. The differences between the current picture and the reference one are normally caused by motion (either camera motion or scene motion), so best prediction is obtained by matching a region in the current picture with a different region in the reference picture. MPEG does not require the use of any particular matching algorithm, and any implementation can use its own method for matching macroblocks (see Section 6.4 for examples of matching algorithms). The discussion here concentrates on the operations of the decoder.

Differences between consecutive pictures may also be caused by random noise in the video camera, or by variations of illumination, which may change brightness in a nonuniform way. In such cases, motion compensation is not used, and each region ends up being matched with the same spatial region in the reference picture. If the difference between consecutive pictures is caused by camera motion, one motion vector is enough for the entire picture. Normally, however, there is also scene motion and movement of shadows, so a number of motion vectors are needed, to describe the motion of different regions in the picture. The size of those regions is critical. A large number of small regions improves prediction accuracy, whereas the opposite situation simplifies the algorithms used to find matching regions and also leads to fewer motion vectors and sometimes to better compression. Since a macroblock is such an important unit in MPEG, it was also selected as the elementary region for motion compensation.

Another important consideration is the precision of the motion vectors. A motion vector such as (15,-4) for a macroblock M typically means that M has been moved from the reference picture to the current picture by displacing it 15 pels to the right and 4 pels up (a positive vertical displacement is down). The components of the vector are in units of pels. They may, however, be in units of half a pel, or even smaller. In MPEG-1, the precision of motion vectors may be either full-pel or half-pel, and the encoder signals this decision to the decoder by a parameter in the picture header (this parameter may be different from picture to picture). It often happens that large areas of a picture move at identical or at similar speeds, and this implies that the motion vectors of adjacent macroblocks are correlated. This is the reason why the MPEG encoder encodes a motion vector by subtracting it from the motion vector of the preceding macroblock and encoding the difference.

A P picture uses an earlier I picture or P picture as a reference picture. We say that P pictures use forward motion-compensated prediction. When a motion vector MD for a macroblock is determined (MD stands for motion displacement, since the vector consists of two components, the horizontal and the vertical displacements), MPEG denotes the motion vector of the preceding macroblock in the slice by PMD and calculates the difference dMD=MD–PMD. PMD is reset to zero at the start of a slice, after a macroblock is intra coded, when the macroblock is skipped, and when parameter block_motion_forward is zero. The 1-bit parameter full_pel_forward_vector in the picture header defines the precision of the motion vectors (1=full-pel, 0=half-pel). The 3-bit parameter forward_ f_code defines the range.
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Old 12-08-2004
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Post Pel Reconstruction

Pel Reconstruction


The main task of the MPEG decoder is to reconstruct the pel of the entire video sequence. This is done by reading the codes of a block from the compressed stream, decoding them, dequantizing them, and calculating the IDCT. For nonintra blocks in P and B pictures, the decoder has to add the motion-compensated prediction to the results of the IDCT. This is repeated six times (or fewer, if some blocks are completely zero) for the six blocks of a macroblock. The entire sequence is decoded picture by picture, and within each picture, macroblock by macroblock. It has already been mentioned that the IDCT is not rigidly defined in MPEG, which may lead to accumulation of errors, called IDCT mismatch, during decoding. For intra-coded blocks, the decoder reads the differential code of the DC coefficient and uses the decoded value of the previous DC coefficient (of the same type) to decode the DC coefficient of the current block. It then reads the run-level codes until an EOB code is encountered, and decodes them, generating a sequence of 63 AC coefficients, normally with few nonzero coefficients and runs of zeros between them. The DC and 63 AC coefficients are then collected in zigzag order to create an 88 block. After dequantization and inverse DCT calculation, the resulting block becomes one of the six blocks that make up a macroblock (in intra coding all six blocks are always coded, even those that are completely zero). For nonintra blocks, there is no distinction between DC and AC coefficients and between luminance and chrominance blocks. They are all decoded in the same way.
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Old 12-08-2004
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Post Mpeg-4

MPEG-4


MPEG-4 is a new standard for audiovisual data. Although video and audio compression is still a central feature of MPEG-4, this standard includes much more than just compression of the data. As a result, MPEG-4 is huge and this section can only describe its main features. No details are provided. We start with a bit of history. The MPEG-4 project started in May 1991 and initially aimed to find ways to compress multimedia data to very low bitrates with minimal distortions. In July 1994, this goal was significantly altered in response to developments in audiovisual technologies. The MPEG-4 committee started thinking of future developments and tried to guess what features should be included in MPEG-4 to meet them. A call for proposals was issued in July 1995 and responses were received by October of that year. (The proposals were supposed to address the eight major functionalities of MPEG-4, listed below.) Tests of the proposals were conducted starting in late 1995. In January 1996, the first verification model was defined, and the cycle of calls for proposals—proposal implementation and verification was repeated several times in 1997 and 1998. Many proposals were accepted for the many facets of MPEG-4, and the first version of MPEG-4 was accepted and approved in late 1998. The formal description was published in 1999 with many amendments that keep coming out.

At present (mid-2003), the MPEG-4 standard is designated the ISO/IEC 14496 standard, and its formal description, which is available from [ISO 03] consists of 10 parts, plus new amendments. More readable descriptions can be found in [Pereira and Ebrahimi 02] and [Symes 03]. MPEG-1 was originally developed as a compression standard for interactive video on CDs and for digital audio broadcasting. It turned out to be a technological triumph but a visionary failure. On one hand, not a single design mistake was found during the implementation of this complex algorithm and it worked as expected. On the other hand, interactive CDs and digital audio broadcasting have had little commercial success, so MPEG-1 is used today for general video compression. One aspect of MPEG-1 that was supposed to be minor, namely MP3, has grown out of proportion and is commonly used today for audio. MPEG-2, on the other hand, was specifically designed for digital television and this product has had tremendous commercial success. The lessons learned from MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 were not lost on the MPEG committee members and helped shape their thinking for MPEG-4. The MPEG-4 project started as a standard for video compression at very low bitrates. It was supposed to deliver reasonable video data in only a few thousand bits per second. Such compression is important for video telephones or for receiving video in a small, handheld device, especially in a mobile environment, such as a moving car. After working on this project for two years, the committee members, realizing that the rapid development of multimedia applications and services will require more and more compression standards, have revised their approach. Instead of a compression standard, they decided to develop a set of tools (a toolbox) to deal with audiovisual products in general, today and in the future. They hoped that such a set will encourage industry to invest in new ideas, technologies, and products in confidence, while making it possible for consumers to generate, distribute, and receive different types of multimedia data with ease and at a reasonable cost.

Traditionally, methods for compressing video have been based on pixels. Each video frame is a rectangular set of pixels and the algorithm looks for correlations between pixels in a frame and between frames. The compression paradigm adopted for MPEG-4, on the other hand, is based on objects. (The name of the MPEG-4 project was also changed at this point to “coding of audiovisual objects.”) In addition to producing a movie in the traditional way with a camera or with the help of computer animation, an individual generating a piece of audiovisual data may start by defining objects, such as a flower, a face, or a vehicle, then describing how each object should be moved and manipulated in successive frames. A flower may open slowly, a face may turn, smile, and fade, a vehicle may move toward the viewer and become bigger. MPEG-4 includes an object description language that provides for a compact description of both objects and their movements and interactions.

Another important feature of MPEG-4 is interoperability. This term refers to the ability to exchange any type of data, be it text, graphics, video, or audio. Obviously, interoperability is possible only in the presence of standards. All devices that produce data, deliver it, and consume (play, display, or print) it must obey the same rules and read and write the same file structures. During its important July 1994 meeting, the MPEG-4 committee decided to revise its original goal and also started thinking of future developments in the audiovisual field and of features that should be included in MPEG-4 to meet them. They came up with eight points that they considered important functionalities for MPEG-4.

1. Content-based multimedia access tools. The MPEG-4 standard should provide tools for accessing and organizing audiovisual data. Such tools may include indexing, linking, querying, browsing, delivering files, and deleting them. The main tools currently in existence are listed later in this section.

2. Content-based manipulation and bitstream editing. A syntax and a coding scheme should be part of MPEG-4 to enable users to manipulate and edit compressed files (bitstreams) without fully decompressing them. A user should be able to select an object and modify it in the compressed file without decompressing the entire file.

3. Hybrid natural and synthetic data coding. A natural scene is normally produced by a video camera. A synthetic scene consists of text and graphics. MPEG-4 needs tools to compress natural and synthetic scenes and mix them interactively.

4. Improved temporal random access. Users may want to access part of the compressed file, so the MPEG-4 standard should include tags to make it easy to reach any point in the file. This may be important when the file is stored in a central location and the user is trying to manipulate it remotely, over a slow communications channel.

5. Improved coding efficiency. This feature simply means improved compression. Imagine a case where audiovisual data has to be transmitted over a low-bandwidth channel (such as a telephone line) and stored in a low-capacity device such as a smartcard. This is possible only if the data is well compressed, and high compression rates (or equivalently, low bitrates) normally involve a trade-off in the form of reduced image size, reduced resolution (pixels per inch), and reduced quality.

6. Coding of multiple concurrent data streams. It seems that future audiovisual applications will allow the user not just to watch and listen but also to interact with the image. As a result, the MPEG-4 compressed stream can include several views of the same scene, enabling the user to select any of them to watch and to change views at will. The point is that the different views may be similar, so any redundancy should be eliminated by means of efficient compression that takes into account identical patterns in the various views. The same is true for the audio part (the soundtracks).

7. Robustness in error-prone environments. MPEG-4 must provide errorcorrecting codes for cases where audiovisual data is transmitted through a noisy channel. This is especially important for low-bitrate streams, where even the smallest error may be noticeable and may propagate and affect large parts of the audiovisual presentation.

8. Content-based scalability. The compressed stream may include audiovisual data in fine resolution and high quality, but any MPEG-4 decoder should be able to decode it at low resolution and low quality. This feature is useful in cases where the data is decoded and displayed on a small, low-resolution screen, or in cases where the user is in a hurry and prefers to see a rough image rather than wait for a full decoding.

Once the above eight fundamental functionalities have been identified and listed, the MPEG-4 committee started the process of developing separate tools to satisfy these functionalities. This is an ongoing process that continues to this day and will continue in the future. An MPEG-4 author faced with an application has to identify the requirements of the application and select the right tools. It is now clear that compression is a central requirement in MPEG-4, but not the only requirement, as it was for MPEG-1 and MPEG-2.
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Old 12-08-2004
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An example may serve to illustrate the concept of natural and synthetic objects. In a news session on television, a few seconds may be devoted to the weather. The viewers see a weather map of their local geographic region (a computer-generated image) that may zoom in and out and pan. Graphic images of sun, clouds, rain drops, or a rainbow (synthetic scenes) appear, move, and disappear. A person is moving, pointing, and talking (a natural scene), and text (another synthetic scene) may also appear from time to time. All those scenes are mixed by the producers into one audiovisual presentation that’s compressed, transmitted (on television cable, on the air, or into the Internet), received by computers or television sets, decompressed, and displayed (consumed). In general, audiovisual content goes through three stages: production, delivery, and consumption. Each of these stages is summarized below for the traditional approach and for the MPEG-4 approach.

Production. Traditionally, audiovisual data consists of two-dimensional scenes; it is produced with a camera and microphones and contains natural objects. All the mixing of objects (composition of the image) is done during production. The MPEG-4 approach is to allow for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects and for natural and synthetic scenes. The composition of objects is explicitly specified by the producers during production by means of a special language. This allows later editing.

Delivery. The traditional approach is to transmit audiovisual data on a few networks, such as local-area networks and satellite transmissions. The MPEG-4 approach is to let practically any data network carry audiovisual data. Protocols exist to transmit audiovisual data over any type of network.

Consumption. Traditionally, a viewer can only watch video and listen to the accompanying audio. Everything is precomposed. The MPEG-4 approach is to allow the user as much freedom of composition as possible. The user should be able to interact with the audiovisual data, watch only parts of it, interactively modify the size, quality, and resolution of the parts being watched, and be as active in the consumption stage as possible. Because of the wide goals and rich variety of tools available as part of MPEG-4, this standard is expected to have many applications. The ones listed here are just a few important examples.

1. Streaming multimedia data over the Internet or over local-area networks. This is important for entertainment and education.
2. Communications, both visual and audio, between vehicles and/or individuals. This has military and law enforcement applications.
3. Broadcasting digital multimedia. This, again, has many entertainment and educational applications.
4. Context-based storage and retrieval. Audiovisual data can be stored in compressed form and retrieved for delivery or consumption.
5. Studio and television postproduction. A movie originally produced in English may be translated to another language by dubbing or subtitling.
6. Surveillance. Low-quality video and audio data can be compressed and transmitted from a surveillance camera to a central monitoring location over an inexpensive, slow communications channel. Control signals may be sent back to the camera through the same channel to rotate or zoom it in order to follow the movements of a suspect.
7. Virtual meetings. This time-saving application is the favorite of busy executives. Our short description of MPEG-4 concludes with a list of the main tools specified by the MPEG-4 standard.

Object descriptor framework. Imagine an individual participating in a video conference. There is an MPEG-4 object representing this individual and there are video and audio streams associated with this object. The object descriptor (OD) provides information on elementary streams available to represent a given MPEG-4 object. The OD also has information on the source location of the streams (perhaps a URL) and on various MPEG-4 decoders available to consume (i.e., display and play sound) the streams. Certain objects place limitations on their consumption, and these are also included in the OD of the object. A common example of a limitation is the need to pay before an object can be consumed. A movie, for example, may be watched only if it has been paid for, and the consumption may be limited to streaming only, so that the consumer cannot copy the original movie.

Systems decoder model. All the basic synchronization and streaming features of the MPEG-4 standard are included in this tool. It specifies how the buffers of the receiver should be initialized and managed during transmission and consumption. It also includes specifications for timing identification and mechanisms for recovery from errors.

Binary format for scenes. An MPEG-4 scene consists of objects, but for the scene to make sense, the objects must be placed at the right locations and moved and manipulated at the right times. This important tool (BIFS for short) is responsible for describing a scene, both spatially and temporally. It contains functions that are used to describe two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects and their movements. It also provides ways to describe and manipulate synthetic scenes, such as text and graphics.

MPEG-J. A user may want to use the Java programming language to implement certain parts of an MPEG-4 content. MPEG-J allows the user to write such MPEGlets and it also includes useful Java APIs that help the user interface with the output device and with the networks used to deliver the content. In addition, MPEG-J also defines a delivery mechanism that allows MPEGlets and other Java classes to be streamed to the output separately.

Extensible MPEG-4 textual format. This tool is a format, abbreviated XMT, that allows authors to exchange MPEG-4 content with other authors. XMT can be described as a framework that uses a textual syntax to represent MPEG-4 scene descriptions.

Transport tools. Two such tools, MP4 and FlexMux, are defined to help users transport multimedia content. The former writes MPEG-4 content on a file, whereas the latter is used to interleave multiple streams into a single stream, including timing information.

Video compression. It has already been mentioned that compression is only one of the many MPEG-4 goals. The video compression tools consist of various algorithms that can compress video data to bitrates between 5 kbits/s (very low bitrate, implying low-resolution and low-quality video) and 1 Gbit/s. Compression methods vary from very lossy to nearly lossless, and some also support progressive and interlaced video. Many MPEG-4 objects consist of polygon meshes, so most of the video compression tools are designed to compress such meshes. Section 8.11 is an example of such a method.

Robustness tools. Data compression is based on removing redundancies from the original data, but this also makes the data more vulnerable to errors. All methods for error detection and correction are based on increasing the redundancy of the data. MPEG-4 includes tools to add robustness, in the form of error-correcting codes, to the compressed content. Such tools are important in applications where data has to be transmitted through unreliable lines. Robustness also has to be added to very low bitrate MPEG-4 streams because these suffer most from errors. Fine-grain scalability. When MPEG-4 content is streamed, it is sometimes desirable to first send a rough image, then improve its visual quality by adding layers of extra information. This is the function of the fine-grain scalability (FGS) tools. Face and body animation. Often, an MPEG-4 file contains human faces and bodies, and they have to be animated. The MPEG-4 standard therefore provides tools for constructing and animating such surfaces.

Speech coding. Speech may often be part of MPEG-4 content and special tools are provided to compress it efficiently at bitrates from 2 kbit/s up to 24 kbit/s. The main algorithm for speech compression is CELP, but there is also a parametric coder.

Audio coding. Several algorithms are available as MPEG-4 tools for audio compression. Examples are (1) advanced audio coding (AAC, based on the filter bank approach), (2) transform-domain weighted interleave vector quantization (Twin VQ, can produce low bitrates such as 6 kbit/s/channel), and (3) harmonic and individual lines plus noise (HILN, a parametric audio coder).

Synthetic audio coding. Algorithms are provided to generate the sound of familiar musical instruments. They can be used to generate synthetic music in compressed format. The MIDI format, popular with computer music users, is also included among these tools. Text-to-speech tools allow authors to write text that will be pronounced when the MPEG-4 content is consumed. This text may include parameters such as pitch contour and phoneme duration that improve the speech quality.
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Old 12-08-2004
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Post H.261

H.261



In late 1984, the CCITT (currently the ITU-T) organized an expert group to develop a standard for visual telephony for ISDN services. The idea was to send images and sound between special terminals, so that users could talk and see each other. This type of application requires sending large amounts of data, so compression became an important consideration. The group eventually came up with a number of standards, known as the H series (for video) and the G series (for audio) recommendations, all operating at speeds of p64 Kbit/s for p = 1, 2, . . . , 30.

Members of the p64 also participated in the development of MPEG, so the two methods have many common elements. There is, however, one important difference between them. In MPEG, the decoder must be fast, since it may have to operate in real time, but the encoder can be slow. This leads to very asymmetric compression, and the encoder can be hundreds of times more complex than the decoder. In H.261, both encoder and decoder operate in real time, so both have to be fast. Still, the H.261 standard defines only the data stream and the decoder. The encoder can use any method as long as it creates a valid compressed stream. The compressed stream is organized in layers, and macroblocks are used as in MPEG. Also, the same 88 DCT and the same zigzag order as in MPEG are used. The intra DC coefficient is quantized by always dividing it by 8, and it has no dead zone. The inter DC and all AC coefficients are quantized with a dead zone. Motion compensation is used when pictures are predicted from other pictures, and motion vectors are coded as differences. Blocks that are completely zero can be skipped within a macroblock, and variable-size codes that are very similar to those of MPEG (such as run-level codes), or are even identical (such as motion vector codes) are used. In all these aspects, H.261 and MPEG are very similar. There are, however, important differences between them. H.261 uses a single quantization coefficient instead of an 88 table of QCs, and this coefficient can be changed only after 11 macroblocks. AC coefficients that are intra coded have a dead zone. The compressed stream has just four layers, instead of MPEG’s six. The motion vectors are always full-pel and are limited to a range of just 15 pels. There are no B pictures, and only the immediately preceding picture can be used to predict a P picture.
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  #17  
Old 16-08-2004
bharat bharat is offline
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How can i take a print-put of this tutorials ?
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  #18  
Old 18-08-2004
hackitboy hackitboy is offline
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thx friend.can i get a pdf of this tutorial?
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  #19  
Old 05-09-2004
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Thanx alot m8, Nice tut, I saved the thread,
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Old 09-09-2004
r1960 r1960 is offline
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Thanks. Helpful.
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